paper Augustin R, Anton-Erxleben F, Jungnickel S, Hemmrich G, Spudy B, Podschun R, and TCG Bosch (2009) Activity of the novel peptide Arminin against multiresistant human pathogens shows the considerable potential of phylogenetically ancient organisms as drug sources. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 53(12), 5245-5250.

Review Fraune S, Augustin R, and TCG Bosch (2009) Exploring host-microbe interactions in hydra. Microbe 4(10), 457-462.

Review Khalturin K, Hemmrich G, Fraune S, Augustin R, and TCG Bosch (2009) More than just orphans: are taxonomically restricted genes important in evolution? Trends in Genetics, 25(9), 404-413

paper Fraune S, Abe Y, and TCG Bosch (2009) Disturbing epithelial homeostasis in the metazoan Hydra leads to drastic changes in associated microbiota. Environ Microbiol. 11(9):2361-9.

Review Bosch TCG (2009) Evolutionäres Vermächtnis: Stammzellen in Hydra. Biologie In Unserer Zeit 2/2009 (39), 114 – 122. DOI:10.1002/biuz.200910390

Review Rosenstiel P, Philipp E, Schreiber S and TCG Bosch (2009) Evolution and Function of Innate Immune Receptors – Insights from Marine Invertebrates. J Innate Immun 1:291 – 300

paper Takahashi T, Koizumi O, Hayakawa E, Minobe S, Suetsugu R, Kobayakawa Y, Bosch TC, David CN, Fujisawa T. (2009) Further characterization of the PW peptide family that inhibits neuron differentiation in Hydra. Dev Genes Evol, 219(3), 119-129

paper Augustin R, Siebert S, and TCG Bosch (2009) Identification of a kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with potent anti-staphylococcal activity as part of hydra’s innate immune system. Dev Comp Immunology, 33(7), 830-837

Review Bosch Thomas C. G. (2009) Hydra and the evolution of stem cells. BioEssays, 31(4), 478-486

paper Milde S, Hemmrich G, Anton-Erxleben F, Khalturin K, Wittlieb J, and TCG Bosch (2009) Characterization of taxonomically-restricted genes in a phylum-restricted cell type. Genome Biol. 10(1):R8

paper Siebert S, Anton-Erxleben F, Kiko R, Kramer M (2009) Sympagohydra tuuli (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): first report from sea ice of the central Arctic Ocean and insights into histology, reproduction and locomotion. Mar Biol, 156(4), 541-554.

paper Jung S, Dingley AJ, Augustin R, Anton-Erxleben F, Stanisak M, Gelhaus C, Gutsmann T, Hammer MU, Podschun R, Leippe M, TCG Bosch and Grötzinger J (2009) Hydramacin-1: Structure and antibacterial activity of a protein from the basal metazoan hydra. J Biol Chem, 284(3), 1896-905.

paper Bosch TCG, R Augustin, F Anton-Erxleben, S Fraune, G Hemmrich, H Zill, P Rosenstiel, G Jacobs, S Schreiber, M Leippe, M Stanisak, J Grötzinger, S Jung, R Podschun, J Bartels, J Harder, J-M Schröder (2009). Uncovering the Evolutionary History of Innate Immunity: the Simple Metazoan Hydra Uses Epithelial Cells for Host Defence. Dev Comp Immunol. 33 (2009), 559-569


paper F Anton-Erxleben, A Thomas, J Wittlieb, S Fraune, and TCG Bosch (2008). Plasticity of epithelial cell shape in response to upstream signals: a whole-organism study using transgenic Hydra. Zoology, 112(3): 185-194

paper K Khalturin, F Anton-Erxleben, S Sassmann, J Wittlieb, G Hemmrich, and TCG Bosch (2008). A novel gene family controls species-specific morphological traits in Hydra. PLoS Biology 6 (11): e278 see also the  “Tentacles test tenets of evolution” commentary in “The Scientist” Featured as “Research highlights” in Nature Reviews Genetics January 2009 Volume 10 Number 1

book Bosch TCG (2008) The Path Less Explored: Innate Immune Reactions in Cnidarians. In: H. Heine (ed.), Innate Immunity of Plants, Animals, and Humans. Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology 21. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Review.

book Khalturin K, U Kürn, and TCG Bosch (2008) Immune Reactions in the Vertebrates’ Closest Relatives, the Urochordates. In: H. Heine (ed.), Innate Immunity of Plants, Animals, and Humans. Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology 21. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Review.

Review Hemmrich G and Bosch TCG (2008) Compagen, a comparative genomics platform for early branching metazoan animals, reveals early origins of genes regulating stem cell differentiation. BioEssays 20(10), 1010-1018

paper Schwarz RS, Bosch TCG and Cadavid LF (2008) Evolution of polydom-like molecules: Identification and characterization of cnidarian polydom (Cnpolydom) in the basal metazoan Hydractinia Dev Comp Immun. 32, 1192-1210

book Bosch Thomas C. G. (Ed.) (2008) “Stem Cells: From Hydra to Man”. 192 pages. Springer Netherlands (2008) ISBN-10: 1402082738; ISBN-13: 978-1402082733


paper Siebert S, Anton-Erxleben F and Bosch TCG (2007) Cell type complexity in the basal metazoan Hydra is maintained by both stem cell based mechanisms and transdifferentiation. Dev. Biol. 313: 13-24

Review Hemmrich G, Miller DJ and Bosch TCG (2007) The evolution of immunity – A low life perspective. Trends Immunol., 28(10), 449-454

paper Fraune S and Bosch TCG (2007) Long-term maintenance of species-specific bacterial microbiota in the basal metazoan Hydra. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 13146-13151

paper Khalturin K, Anton-Erxleben F, Milde S, Plötz C, Wittlieb J, Hemmrich G and Bosch TCG (2007) Transgenic stem cells in Hydra reveal an early evolutionary origin for key elements controlling self-renewal and differentiation. Dev. Biol. 309: 32-44

paper Hemmrich G, Anokhin B, Zacharias H and Bosch TCG (2007) Molecular phylogenetics in Hydra, a classical model in evolutionary developmental biology. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44:281-290

paper Kürn U, Sommer F, Bosch TCG and K Khalturin (2007) In the urochordate Ciona intestinalis zona pellucida domain proteins vary among individuals. Dev. Comp. Immun. 31: 1242-1254

paper Miller DJ, Hemmrich G, Ball EE, Hayward DC, Khalturin K, Funayama N, Agata K and Bosch TCG (2007) The innate immune repertoire in Cnidaria – ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss. Genome Biol. 8(4):R59

book Bosch TCG (2007) Symmetry breaking in stem cells of the basal metazoan Hydra. In: Asymmetric cell division Series: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology (Ed. Macieira-Coelho). pp. 61-78, Springer, Heidelberg.

Review Bosch TCG (2007) Why polyps regenerate and we don´t: towards a cellular and molecular framework for Hydra regeneration. Dev. Biol. 303:421-433



Review Khalturin K and Bosch TCG (2006) Self / nonself discrimination at the basis of chordate evolution: limits on molecular conservation. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18:1-6

paper Kürn U, Sommer F, Hemmrich G, Bosch TCG and Khalturin K (2006) Allorecognition in urochordates: identification of a highly variable complement receptor-like protein expressed in follicle cells of Ciona. Dev. Comp. Immun. 31(4):360-71

paper Augustin R, Franke A, Khalturin K, Kiko R, Siebert S, Hemmrich G and Bosch TCG (2006) Dickkopf related genes are components of the positional value gradient in Hydra. Dev. Biol. 296: 62-70

paper Wittlieb J, Khalturin K, Lohmann JU, Anton-Erxleben F and Bosch TCG (2006) Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103;16: 6208-6211 see also the commentary “Trembley´s polyps go transgenic” in PNAS 103 (17): 6415-6416

paper Genikhovich G, Kürn U, Hemmrich G and Bosch TCG (2006) Discovery of genes expressed in Hydra embryogenesis. Dev. Biol. 15;289(2): 466-81

paper Thomsen S and Bosch TCG (2006) Foot differentiation and genomic plasticity in Hydra: lessons from the PPOD gene family. Dev. Genes and Evol. 216(2):57-68


paper Siebert S, Thomsen S, Reimer MM, Bosch TCG (2005) Control of foot differentiation in Hydra: phylogenetic footprinting indicates interaction of head, bud and foot patterning systems. Mech. Dev. 122(9):998-1007

paper Habetha M and Bosch TCG (2005) Symbiotic Hydra express a plant-like peroxidase gene during oogenesis. J. Exp. Biol. 208:2157-2164

paper Khalturin K, Kürn U, Pinnow N and Bosch TCG (2005) Towards a molecular code for individuality in the absence of MHC: screening for individually variable genes in the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 29(9):759-773


paper Khalturin K, Pancer Z, Cooper MD and Bosch TCG (2004) Recognition strategies in the innate immune system of ancestral chordates. Mol. Immunol. 41(11):1077-1087

Review Bosch TCG (2004) Control of asymmetric cell divisions: will cnidarians provide an answer? BioEssays 26(9):929-931

paper Zacharias H, Anokhin B, Khalturin K and Bosch TCG (2004) Genome sizes and chromosomes in the basal metazoan Hydra Zoology 107(3): 219–227

paper Thomsen S, Till A, Beetz C, Wittlieb J, Khalturin K and Bosch TCG (2004) Control of foot diffenrentiation in Hydra: in vitro evidence that the NK-2 homeobox factor CnK-2 autoregulates its own expression and uses pedibin as target gene. Mech. Dev. 121(2): 195-204

paper Fedders H, Augustin R and Bosch TCG (2004) A Dickkopf-3 related gene is expressed in differentiating nematocytes in the basal metazoan Hydra. Dev. Genes Evol. 214(2):72-80


paper Fröbius AC, Genikhovich G, Kürn U, Anton-Erxleben F and Bosch TCG (2003) Expression of developmental genes during early embryogenesis of Hydra. Dev. Genes Evol. 213(9):445-455

paper Kuznetsov SG and Bosch TCG (2003) Self/nonself recognition in Cnidaria: contact to allogeneic tissue does not result in elimination of nonself cells in Hydra vulgaris. Zoology 106(2):109-116

paper Habetha M, Anton-Erxleben F, Neumann K and Bosch TCG (2003) The Hydra viridis / Chlorella symbiosis. (I) Growth and sexual differentiation in polyps without symbionts. Zoology 106(2):101-108

paper Khalturin K, Becker M, Rinkevich B and Bosch TCG (2003) Urochordates and the origin of natural killer cells: identification of a CD94 / NKR-P1 related receptor in blood cells in Botryllus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 21;100(2): 622-6272 See also: Science, Editors` Choice,Vol.299 Journal of Cell Biology, Research Roundup, Vol.160

Review Bosch TCG (2003) Ancient signals: peptides and the interpretation of positional information in ancestral metazoans. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 136, 185-196

paper Kasahara S and Bosch TCG (2003) Enhanced antibacterial activity in Hydra polyps lacking nerve cells. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 27: 79-166

paper Khalthurin K, Kuznetsov S and Bosch TCG (2003) PCR Fluorescence Differential Display. PCR Protocols, 2nd edition (eds. J Bartlett & D Stirling) Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.


paper Kuznetsov SG, Anton-Erxleben F and Bosch TCG (2002) Epithelial interactions in Hydra: apoptosis in interspecies grafts is induced by detachment from the extracellular matrix. J. Exp. Biol. 205(24):3809-3817

paper Bosch TCG, Augustin R, Gellner K, Khalturin K and Lohmann JU (2002) In vivo electroporation for genetic manipulations of whole Hydra polyps. Differentiation 70(4-5):140-147

Review Bosch TCG and Khalturin K (2002) Patterning and cell differentiation in Hydra: novel genes and the limits to conservation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:1670-1677


paper Kuznetsov S, Lyanguzowa M and Bosch TCG (2001) Role of epithelial cells and programmed cell death in Hydra spermatogenesis. Zoology 104(1):25-31

Review Bosch TCG (2001) Neue Tricks von alten Tieren: wie bildet Hydra einen Kopf? BIOforum, 1-2/2001, 57-59.

Review Bosch TCG and Fujisawa T (2001) Polyps, peptides and patterning. BioEssays 23(5) 420-427


paper M Cardenas, Y Fabila, S Yum, J Cerbon, F Böhmer, R Wetzker, T Fujisawa, TCG Bosch, and LM Salgado (2000) Selective protein kinase inhibitors block head-specific differentiation in hydra. Cellular Signalling 12, 649-658

paper Lohmann Jan U. and TCG Bosch (2000) The novel peptide HEADY specifies apical fate in a simple, radially symmetric metazoan. Genes and Development, 14 (21) 2771-2777 Comments in Nature Reviews Genetics (2000) 1: 16; Scientific American Online, The Scientist (2000) 14(23): 24; Bild der Wissenschaft, u.a.

paper Venturelli CR., S Kuznetsov, LM. Salgado, TCG Bosch (2000) An IQGAP-related gene is activated during tentacle formation in the simple metazoan Hydra. Dev Gene Evol 210 (2000) 8/9, 458-463

paper Takahashi T, O Koizumi, Y Ariura, A Romanovitch, TCG Bosch, Y Kobayakawa, S Mohri, HR Bode, S Yum, M Hatta and T Fujisawa (2000) A novel neuropeptide, Hym-355, positively regulates neuron differentiation in Hydra. Development, 127 (5): 997-1005